Check mo thru multitester, analog type para mas maganda(X1 resistance test). Check for short between primary-secondaries, windings(primary or secondaries)- core, secondaries-secondaries. Check for resistance of windings(primary and secondary). Primary windings have some resistance reading if rated for 220VAC, and a 0 reading for secondaries with low voltage output(24VAC out e.g.)
Also thru visual inspection like burned windings or smell.
You can inject lower voltage power AC. Gawin mo muna sa secondaries. Halimbawa 12 volts AC inject ka ng 2volts para 1/6 out din sa primary.Use fuse sa suppy side para safe. Kapag within range. Time for rated voltage test. And don't short the windings and core. Use smaller transformer with multitap to inject voltage on Traffo under test.
As always safety.
Padagdag na lang mga master yung kulang.